yugoslav black wave

est. 1963 – 1970s

The 1960s was a tumultuous era of change and transformation across the globe, and in the former Yugoslavia, a unique and provocative film movement known as the Yugoslav Black Wave emerged. This period in the cinema’s history was characterized by a wave of unconventional films that challenged society both in Yugoslavia and beyond its borders.

Origins of the Yugoslav Black Wave

The Yugoslav Black Wave emerged against the backdrop of a turbulent period in nations’ history. Led by the charismatic leader Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia had initially gained its independence from the Axis Powers during World War II and embarked on a path of socialist self-management. However, Tito’s separation from Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union in 1948, marked a significant shift as rigid cultural constraints gave a way to a policy of non-alignment. This allowed an expansion of artistic realms, making the Yugoslav art scene one of the most avant-garde and unconventional in the Eastern and Central Europe.


As the 1960s dawned, the country began to experience internal and external pressures, including economic challenges and growing political dissent. It was in this atmosphere that a group of young filmmakers challenged the conventions of Yugoslav cinema and addressed the complex societal issues. They aimed to present a more unvarnished and unconventional portrayal of Yugoslav society, delving into the complexities and contradictions of life under socialism.


The term “Black Wave” was coined by Yugoslav critics in the 1960s and refers to a wave of domestic films that embraced dark, satirical, and unconventional themes.

yugoslav black wave - I Even Met Happy Gypsies (1967) by Aleksandar Petrovic
I Even Met Happy Gypsies (1967) by Aleksandar Petrovic

Characteristics of the Yugoslav Black Wave

This film movement was marked by anti-establishment themes, experimentation, character-driven stories, social critique, and visual innovation. The Yugoslav Black Wave filmmakers challenged the official narrative and critiqued the Yugoslav political system, while also exploring the disillusionment experienced by population.


At the core of the movement was an embrace of non-linear storytelling and innovative narrative structures. By challenging viewers’ expectations and defying conventional cinematic norms, they shattered boundaries and redefined storytelling. The Black Wave tackled societal taboos head-on. Themes encompassed everything from sexuality and politics to religion, and pushing against the constraints of censorship. As a result, some of the filmmakers were banned from working in Yugoslavia. The movement’s decline coincided with a period of political repression in the 1970s.

Important Filmmakers and Films

Dusan Makavejev occupied a central role in this movement. His film “WR: Mysteries of the Organism” (1971) was celebrated for seamlessly blending elements of documentary and fiction, tackling controversial themes, and challenging societal norms with his boundary-pushing narratives.


Adding his unique voice to the movement with “I Even Met Happy Gypsies” (1967) was Aleksandar Petrovic. Through this film, Petrovic explored the marginalized Roma community, offering a commentary on social inequalities and discrimination, a subject that was often ignored or overlooked. At the 1967 Cannes Festival, the film was nominated for the Palme d’Or and won the Special Grand Prize of the Jury and the FIPRESCI Prize.

When I Am Dead and White (1967) by Zivojin Pavlovic
When I Am Dead and White (1967) by Zivojin Pavlovic
Early Works (1969) by Zelimir Zilnik
Early Works (1969) by Zelimir Zilnik

Legacy and Influence of the Yugoslav Black Wave

Despite being relatively short-lived, the Yugoslav Black Wave played a pivotal role in reshaping Yugoslav cinema and making it more introspective and self-critical. It offered a unique blend of subversion, experimentation, and social critique that continues to resonate with audiences. The movement influenced filmmakers globally, the most prominent being Emir Kusturica, two times winner of Palme d’Or award. Its legacy endures, both within the former Yugoslav countries and Balkan region.

WR: Mysteries of the Organism (1971) by Dusan Makavejev
WR: Mysteries of the Organism (1971) by Dusan Makavejev

Please refer to the Listed Films for the recommended works associated with the film movement.