yugoslav black wave

est. 1963 – 1970s

The 1960s was a tumultuous era of change and transformation across the globe, while in the former Yugoslavia, a unique and provocative film movement known as the Yugoslav Black Wave was emerging. This period was characterized by a wave of unconventional films that challenged society both in former Yugoslavia and beyond its borders.

Origins of the Yugoslav Black Wave

Led by the charismatic leader Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia had initially gained its independence from the Axis Powers during World War II, and embarked on a path of socialist self-management. However, Tito’s separation from Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union in 1948, marked a significant shift as rigid cultural constraints gave a way to a policy of non-alignment. This allowed an expansion of artistic realms, making the Yugoslav art scene one of the most avant-garde and unconventional in the Eastern and Central Europe.


As the 1960s dawned, the country began to experience internal and external pressures, including economic challenges and growing political dissent. It was in this atmosphere that a group of young filmmakers challenged the conventions of Yugoslav cinema, aiming to present a more genuine portrayal of Yugoslav society, and delving into the complexities and contradictions of life under socialism.


The term “Black Wave” was coined by Yugoslav critics in the 1960s and refers to a wave of domestic films that embraced dark, satirical and atypical subjects.

Film Movements - Yugoslav Black Wave - I Even Met Happy Gypsies (1967) by Aleksandar Petrovic
I Even Met Happy Gypsies (1967) by Aleksandar Petrovic

Characteristics of the Yugoslav Black Wave

This film movement was marked by anti-establishment themes, experimentation, character-driven stories, social critique and visual innovation. The Yugoslav Black Wave filmmakers challenged the official narrative and critiqued the Yugoslav political system, while also exploring the disillusionment experienced by population.


At the core of the movement was the willingness to embrace a non-linear storytelling and innovative narrative structure. The Black Wave dealt with the societal taboos head-on. Themes encompassed everything from sexuality and politics to religion, while pushing against the constraints of censorship. As a result, some of the filmmakers were banned from working in Yugoslavia, while the movement’s decline coincided with a period of political repression experienced in the 1970s.

Important Filmmakers and Films

Dusan Makavejev occupied a central role in the movement. His film “WR: Mysteries of the Organism” (1971) was celebrated for seamlessly blending elements of documentary and fiction, tackling controversial themes, and challenging societal norms with his boundary-pushing narratives.


Adding his unique voice to the movement with “I Even Met Happy Gypsies” (1967) was Aleksandar Petrovic. Through this film, Petrovic explored the marginalized Roma community, offering a commentary on social inequalities and discrimination, a subject that was often ignored or overlooked. At the 1967 Cannes Festival, the film was nominated for the Palme d’Or and won the Special Grand Prize of the Jury and the FIPRESCI Prize.


Aleksandar Pavlovic was another influential director of the Black Wave movement, known for his socially engaged and critical films. “When I Am Dead and Gone” (1967) stands as a powerful exploration of generational conflict and the disillusionment of youth in post-World War II Yugoslavia.

When I Am Dead and White (1967) by Zivojin Pavlovic
When I Am Dead and White (1967) by Zivojin Pavlovic
Early Works (1969) by Zelimir Zilnik
Early Works (1969) by Zelimir Zilnik

Legacy and Influence of the Yugoslav Black Wave

Despite being relatively short-lived, the Yugoslav Black Wave played a pivotal role in reshaping Yugoslav cinema, making it more introspective and self-critical. It offered a unique blend of subversion, experimentation, and social critique that continues to resonate with audiences worldwide.


The movement influenced European filmmakers, the most prominent being Serbian director Emir Kusturica, two times winner of Palme d’Or award, and paved the way for a more diverse and independent cinema, both within the former Yugoslav countries and the greater Balkan region.

WR: Mysteries of the Organism (1971) by Dusan Makavejev
WR: Mysteries of the Organism (1971) by Dusan Makavejev

Please refer to the Listed Films for the recommended works associated with the film movement.